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Amalgam – Collaborative techniques within cooperative spaces

Artículo

Amalgam – Collaborative techniques within cooperative spaces 

Por Aidan Deery

Sonic Arts Research Centre, Queen's University, Belfast
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Michaël Dzjaparidze

Sonic Arts Research Centre, Queen's University, Belfast
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Robin Renwick

Sonic Arts Research Centre, Queen's University, Belfast
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Abstract

This paper describes the outcomes of a residency in which three participants combined their practices within three disparate areas of sonic art. During the residency, a fourth “performer” was added to represent the host building in the form of its wireless internet data and a framework was developed to facilitate this metaphor whilst integrating distinct aesthetic considerations. This culminated in a series of live performances entitled Amalgam, which is described in the context of both collaboration and cooperation. Discourse surrounding network affordance, authorship and the use of non-musical data is also explored.

collaboration - performance - network - non-musical data

Resonancias vol.19, n°36, enero-junio 2015, pp. 27-36. 
DOI: 10.7764/res.2015.36.3
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Introduction

This paper outlines the project entitled Amalgam: Collaborative Techniques within Cooperative Spaces, a residency undertaken over a two-week period in June 2012 at the Metropolitan Arts Centre (MAC), in Belfast, Northern Ireland, which culminated in a series of live performances at the venue; an example of the performance is available online (Deery et al. 2012). The remit of the residency was twofold: to create an original sonic art composition to be performed live, whilst simultaneously educating and informing the general public on the processes and techniques used within the creative process.

The residency forged links between three artists who contributed their knowledge of three disparate areas of sonic arts to the project, providing a platform for the amalgamation of artistic practices and relevant aesthetic standpoints. The three contributing methods were soundscape composition, network music performance and algorithmic composition. These distinguished compositional strategies would combine to construct a shared framework on which the final performance could rest, enabling a distinct dramaturgical model to emerge. The term dramaturgy originates from the performing arts – particularly theatre – but has been reappropriated within network music theory in order to understand “notions of authorship, collaboration, structure, content and as an umbrella term for a number of aspects that characterise performance practice” (Rebelo et al. 2008, 1), all of which were under consideration during the residency.

This framework aimed to extend the artists’ collaborative efforts by including the building’s wireless public access network, which provided dynamically changing non-musical data to which we would assign a level of ‘affordance’ (Kane 2007) – that is, the level of control the network possess over elements of the overall performance. This is in keeping with network performance theory, in which telematic systems are viewed as “a new class of musical instrument” and therefore integral to the performance (Braasch 2009, 421). Musical material for the project was gathered from recordings exclusively from within the host building, so that the data could – in some way – control elements of its own ‘sonic identity.’

The focus of the residency was placed firmly on establishing an architecture for the performance that would allow for this transspatial interaction to occur, seeking to reduce the role of the “artist” and emphasising the “interactions and actions of the process” (Makelberge 2012, 31). This paper explores the theoretical and aesthetic implications of engaging with non-musical material in the context of collaboration, both between the three participating artists and the network data (representing the building) as a fourth “performer.”

The project

Amalgam centred around the decision to utilise data from the building’s wireless public access network, which raised a number of theoretical issues regarding not only the roles of the “sonic artists” but also that of the “non-musical” network data in the project. The information itself was essentially arbitrary, as specific details of the internet traffic were disregarded. It was felt, however, that the changing information embodied a tangible yet abstracted presence of human activity: the “digital lifeblood” of the building and an evolving representation of the MAC’s internal “identity.” This constantly changing stream of information allowed for a means of “collaborating” with the building itself, essentially making the network a fourth “performer” in the composition.

The network information was accumulated using tcpdump – a command-line packet analyser – after which the data was converted to valid OSC messages using a Perl script, which in turn could be received by a host application: in this case SuperCollider. At this stage, decisions could be made regarding the programming of an appropriate algorithm. After much consideration, the data was used simply to trigger sound files; specific information from the network – such as packet sizes, network addresses and checksums – was ignored and activity was used only to trigger a sample from a predetermined bank of sound files (seven banks were used in total, spanning four different sections of the piece). When new network data became available, an OSC message was generated containing that data, which was then sent to SuperCollider.

Each section of the piece consisted of two precomposed layers of sounds: ‘ambience’ and ‘gestural.’ The ambience bank simply played in sequence (with some overlap), whilst the gestural bank was triggered using the network data. Some safety features were incorporated, namely to automatically play a sound if a trigger was not received within a specified time and, similarly, if more than one trigger was received in a too-short amount of time, only one was used to trigger a sound and the others were ignored. These upper and lower bounds were made to vary some of the gestural sections in order to decrease and increase the density of the events dynamically (to provide more or less gestures, depending on the requirements of that particular section).

With additional time, the potential for network data to control various other aspects of the performance (dynamic control over various parameters of sound manipulation, for example) could have been explored. Utilising the data as a trigger system, however, ensured that the aim of incorporating the network within the performance was satisfied, and that additional attention could be allocated to the development of musical content.

Prior to discussing the musical content and performance of the work, and due to the nature of the project, the paper will address collaboration, not between participants, but more applicably from the standpoint of the residency’s host building vis-à-vis the participants and the final performance. The building itself became a “performer,” directly engaging with the presupposed model of dramaturgy. Concepts related to degrees of affordance are incorporated into this collaboration, especially in relation to the decisions made that allowed for either a greater or lesser degree of affordance to be realised (Kane 2007). The paper will now offer a brief overview of each of the practices that contributed to Amalgam.

Soundscape composition

Fixed-medium electroacoustic music, as a subsidiary or relative of sound art, is itself a diverse practice that cannot be generalised in terms of approach. A branch of this “genre” is concerned with the ‘soundscape,’ Schafer’s flagship term to describe the sonic environment (Schafer 1994). Artists work primarily with field recordings, editing and manipulating them using a variety of techniques to create fixed-medium electroacoustic compositions, with recourse to the original context of the material. The stated aim of soundscape composition, embodied by the work of composers such as Barry Truax and Hildegard Westerkamp, is to harness this context in order to create a dialogue between composer and listener that in some way enhances our understanding of the world (Levack Drever 2002; Truax 2002).

When field recordings are employed in fixed-medium soundscape composition, the original context of the disembodied sound is often alluded to through extramusical discourse or the establishment of ‘sound-image’ relationships (Kim 2010). As an important aspect of the project was to explore the sonic identity of the host building, the performance would aim to exploit what Smalley describes as ‘source-bonding:’ our “natural tendency to relate sounds to supposed sources and causes” (Smalley 1997, 110). As sounds were recorded from within the MAC building – including recognisable sounds from the café and the recorded voice from the building’s elevator, for example – and as the performances would take place in the building itself, the recognisability of the sounds in relation to their sources was embraced in order for the listener to relate the sounds to their sources within the building.

Network music performance

Network music harnesses the potential of interconnections between the multiple agents involved in a performance: composers, performers and technologies (Vallis et al. 2012). Data sharing capabilities are exploited, making possible real-time interaction between artists, utilising digital “space” in such a way that allows for creative frameworks to be developed. Interdependability and interconnectedness of factors are seen as core features of the aesthetic, allowing for original and dynamic performance and compositional models to emerge. Delineated and designated network structures are seen as an essential platform for the practice, as well as the overarching muse of the methodology (Field 2012).

Amalgam sought to utilise network ideals, concepts, and technologies within the performance architecture. The network was used as a ‘technical metaphor’ (Föllmer 2005, 185), indicating its presence as an additional “performer,” rather than to provide the focus for the performance itself. However, the use of network structures for performative means did raise some aesthetic concerns. These concerns were discussed throughout the creation of the project, and involved decisions such as how to implement the dynamic information gathered from the building's network infrastructure into the performance in manageable and worthwhile ways, and how to convey to the audience that the network was an additional performer. In terms of collaboration, cooperation and aesthetic convictions, these prevalent concepts found within network music performance practice and theory had a pertinent influence on the realisation of the project.

Algorithmic composition

Algorithmic composition applies to the practice of creating material and structural meaning by means of using a set of rules and instructions. It could be argued that whilst the use of algorithms in music composition is “as old as music itself” (Jacob 1996, 157), it was not until the advent of the computer that algorithmic methods of composition came to fruition. More powerful computers have allowed composers to model the creative process more delicately and algorithms with which to experiment are now more readily available. Though engaging in a more scientific approach to composition – with recourse to mathematics, physics and biology – its aesthetic concerns and outcomes share similarities with other forms of electroacoustic music, as it can often result in fixed-medium works concerned with timbre and structure (Maurer 1999).

Regarding the use of algorithms for artistic creation, philosophical questions are posed relating to the ‘authorship of ideas’ and the role of the composer, such as “who or what is responsible for the music produced” (Jacob 1996, 157). During the residency, many options were considered that would afford more or less “authorship” to the network data. These included analysing the data and using stochastic processes to offer greater affordance to the network in terms of allowing it to control more of the content and structure of the performance. Alternatively, the network data could be used as a trigger system, as previously discussed. These decisions would impact not only the form and content of Amalgam, but also the respective roles of each of the performers within the framework of the performance.

The performance

During the residency, there were a total of eight performances, each with a short introduction given to the audience. As a reference, an audio example of one of these performances is available online (Deery et al. 2012). The topology of the performance framework had the potential to allow a great deal of affordance to be allocated to the building’s network data. A simple tree structure was imposed, in which one computer (designated the master computer) would generate audio signals with respect to the public access network information gathered (Fig.1).

 

Deery et al - Figura

Figure 1 / Amalgam Topology.

This audio signal would then be simultaneously sent to three performers, who would apply signal processing techniques during the performance, in a ‘reactive’ manner (Globokar 1970).

As previously mentioned, a number of possibilities were considered for the role of the network data within the performance framework. It was initially thought that an activation system could be used to trigger a series of random samples from the precomposed sample bank. During the live performance, it was thought that the artists could react to this material and apply appropriate live processing. Attempting to use the trigger system in this way lacked structural cohesion, resulting in a disjointed series of sonic events. Aesthetic decisions were required regarding the role of this trigger system and the overall structure of the composition.

Whilst it was initially thought that diluting the role of the network would impact negatively on the performance, it was felt that giving the data complete structural control would not have been sonically interesting, or wholly aesthetically pleasing – the result being a series of randomly generated samples. Consequently, an overall structure, or ‘bed,’ was created using textural and ambient sounds recorded within the building, over which the network would “decide” what sonic material would be included in the piece by choosing sounds from the samples that were suited to each of the sections. Each performer would subsequently apply subtle processing to both the ambient ‘bed’ and the samples triggered by the network.

Though this meant that the overall structure would loosely remain the same, each performance would be altered according to the amount of network activity at the time – as if the network were “improvising” in each performance. As such, the level of control afforded to the network directly informed the content of the performance, rather than its structure, as previously hoped.

Before each performance, the role of the network data was explained to the audience, who were encouraged to log on to the building’s Wi-Fi network and browse the internet so that they could contribute triggers to the performance. Although the link between browsing to produce triggers and hearing the samples was not obvious, this was considered an important additional element to the performance that helped the audience engage in and relate to the work.

Delineating reciprocity

Pertaining to network music performance, Makelberge identifies distinctions between collaboration, cooperation and collective creation, terms that are “spread out along an axis of more to less reciprocity” (Makelberge 2012, 29). Whilst Makelberge goes on to concentrate on the least ‘reciprocal’ of these methods – collective creation – the distinctions between the first two terms are useful in the context of our approach. Collaboration is seen here as coordinated and synchronous, and the most ‘intensely reciprocal’ (Makelberge 2012) method of interaction, whereas less reciprocity is assigned to the practice of cooperation, as subtasks were assigned to be solved individually which contributed to the subsequent whole (Dillenbourg 1999). As such, Amalgam provoked an engagement with two fundamental and overlapping concepts – collaboration and cooperation – and the next section of the paper will engage in a theoretical discussion on the issues and implications of these approaches.

Collaborative techniques

Artistic collaboration was a primary motivation for Amalgam: three artists drawn from disparate, yet related, compositional practices interacted with the view of creating a coherent musical whole that would reflect the compositional methodologies of each participant. The convention of collaborative art may be seen as a fine balancing act between aesthetic standpoints so as to be able to find a creative equilibrium (Becker 1974). It was envisioned that the collaborative process of Amalgam would be synergistic, in contrast to the view of the creative sonic artist as an isolated figure (Hecker 2008).

The degrees of reciprocity between the performers and the building – along with the level of affordance extended to the non-musical data – shifted throughout the residency, mainly through a process of trial and error, with the theoretical focus fluctuating between the collaborative and the cooperative. As such, the discourse primarily associated with network performance can be identified throughout the production and performance process, tempered and augmented by soundscape and algorithmic approaches. For instance, programming techniques from the algorithmic domain were integral to obtaining a functioning trigger system while the field recording techniques used to capture the building’s unique soundscape were crucial in giving the network data a resource bank from which to “play,” thus providing material for the performance that reflected its own sonic identity.

Authorship and dramaturgy

Dramaturgy is concerned with outlining fluid definitions that can be used to better explain and enhance our understanding of artistic processes (Schroeder 2009). The idea of dramaturgy can be extended to Amalgam, so that the relationship between the three performing artists and the fourth “performer” can be better understood. Rebelo et al. identify three models of dramaturgy – projected, directed and distributed – and whilst there are potential identifiers pointing to all three within Amalgam, directed dramaturgy would appear to be the most relevant:

This is a model […] in which an artist or group is in charge of the overall performance, i.e. authorship remains with an individual or group who take on the role of director (Rebelo et al. 2008, 30).

Within Amalgam, the three physical participants act as both directors and performers, whereas the fourth performer, the digital manifestation of the building itself, is directed through the performance architecture to support the overarching view of the directors.

An interesting discussion could have emerged from an alternative framework: there was potential to realise a model of ‘projected’ dramaturgy, wherein one performer takes the role of author, and the others as contributors. This was a model that would have invoked a greater level of affordance to be ceded to the network data and therefore the MAC building; it could have become author and primary performer, with each composer contributing their expertise when required. This vision was not realised, but may be seen as a valid avenue for discussion, considering the decisions that were made in relation to degrees of affordance given to performers and entities within the collaborative musical composition.

Cooperative spaces

In a performative setting it is perhaps more appropriate to consider space in terms of ‘environment,’ encompassing both the physical and the virtual as well as their subsequent relationships (Rebelo et al. 2008, 30). Rebelo et al. posit that a network itself can be “rendered as an acoustic environment in which distance and latency have directly perceptible acoustic implications” (Rebelo et al. 2008, 30). As the “directors” imposed a structural framework to which the network contributed, it can therefore be suggested that the network acts as a contributing ‘environment’ within the directed dramaturgy: a virtual space that collaborates with a physical one occupied by the performers.

From the outset we strived to incorporate recognisable sounds from the building that captured the essence of its core “identity.” This subjective process involved deciding upon readily identifiable sounds that stood out from the buildings ambience. Sound artist Stephen Vitiello provides compelling examples of how the sonic identity of a building can be revealed. His recordings and installations – for example his 1999 work World Trade Center Recordings: Winds After Hurricane Floyd (Vitiello 1999) – often accentuate sounds within buildings that usually go unnoticed, and according to Kim-Cohen, make “direct reference to the spaces of the built environment in which most of us spend the better part of our lives, drawing attention to the boundaries that delimit and contain our senses” (Kim-Cohen 2005).

Not only does this portray an example of a focus on sonic occurrences within a particular building not dissimilar to the intentions of Amalgam, it also implies a desire to encourage engagement with the transcendental, shifting attention from the phenomenological to the metaphorical. Comparably, Amalgam aimed to employ non-musical data to achieve a similar shift in perception.

Considering Kanes’ view on the restricted development of network affordance, it became apparent that Amalgam sought to leverage the role network data obtained from the building had on the final performance. This translation, from the non-musical to the musical, was enabled by the framework that emerged as a result of cooperative efforts, therefore allowing the virtual space of the building to cooperate with the physical space inhabited by the three performers.

Conclusion

Amalgam sought primarily to make use of the public access network data within the building to harness the potential for non-musical material to structure the performance, which would be determined by the amount of ‘affordance’ ceded to the network (Kane 2007). This would be shaped by our approach to the creation of an algorithm that would, in some way, allow the network to act as an additional performer. Considering the ‘amalgamation’ of each performer’s disparate methodologies, and the timeframe of the residency, it was felt that the coalescence of collaboration and cooperation, as described, was the most appropriate approach in terms of satisfying aesthetic considerations and the incorporation of the non-musical network data into the final performance.

It was this combination of collaboration and cooperation – both in the compositional and communication paradigm (Föllmer, 2005) – that meant the final output of Amalgam remained dynamic and engaging, achieving core relevancy with respect to the delineated remit of the residency and also with the three participating sonic artists. Though many roles were considered for the data, the flexibility of the approach maintained by the three participants ensured a balance between the level of affordance ceded to the network and the musical content of the work.

A subsequent realisation of the project in April 2013 at the Sonic Arts Research Centre in Belfast demonstrated the potential to further develop the framework of the project in different locations. Again the sound material was gathered from recordings made within the host building, and in this case, the size and length of the data packages from the network were used to control elements of the spatialisation of the sound by allocating this information to various ambisonic parameters. It is therefore concluded that the project has the potential to be realised in multiple locations, each investigating additional levels of affordance that could be ceded to the network.

 

 

Bibliography 

Becker, Howard S. 1974 “Art as Collective Action.” American Sociological Review 39 (6): 767-776.

Braasch, Jonas. 2009. “The Telematic Music System: Affordances for a New Instrument to Shape the Music of Tomorrow.” Contemporary Music Review 28 (4/5): 421-432.

Deery, Aidan, Michaël Dzjaparidze and Robin Renwick. 2012. “Amalgam MAC (Live).” https://soundcloud.com/amalgam-collective/amalgam-mac-live. Accessed April 30, 2015.

Dillenbourg, Pierre. 1999. “What Do you Mean by “Collaborative Learning?” in Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches, edited by Pierre Dillenbourg, 1-16. Amsterdam: Pergamon.

Fields, Kenneth. 2012. “Syneme: Live.” Organised Sound 17 (1):86-95.

Föllmer, Golo. 2005. “Electronic, Aesthetic and Social Factors in Net Music.” Organised Sound 10 (3): 185-191.

Globokar, Vinko. 1970. “Role of a Performer – Reacting.” http://www.champdaction.be/en/role-performer-vinko-globokar/. Accessed April 22, 2015.

Hecker, Tim. 2008. “Glenn Gould, the Vanishing Performer and the Ambivalence of the Studio.” Leonardo Music Journal 18: 77-83.

Jacob, Bruce L. 1996. “Algorithmic Composition as a Model of Creativity.” Organised Sound 1 (3): 157-165.

Jones, Kevin. 1981. “Compositional Applications of Stochastic Process.” Computer Music Journal 5 (2): 45-61.

Kane, Brian. 2007. “Aesthetic Problems of Net Music.” Paper presented at Spark Festival, University of Minnesota, USA, February 20-25.

Kim, Suk Jun. 2010. “Imaginal Listening: A Quaternary Framework for Listening to Electroacoustic Music and Phenomena of Sound-Images.” Organised Sound 15 (1): 43-53.

Kim-Cohen, Seth. 2005. “Stephen Vitiello Profile for Art Review Magazine.” http://www.kim-cohen.com/seth_texts/Stephen_Vitiello_Profile.html. Accessed 22 April, 2015.

Leach, Jeremy and John Fitch. 1995. “Nature, Music, and Algorithmic Composition.” Computer Music Journal 19 (2): 23-33.

Levack Drever, John. 2002. “Soundscape Composition: The Convergence of Ethnography and Acousmatic Music.” Organised Sound 7 (1): 21-27.

Makelberge, Nicolas. 2012. “Rethinking Collaboration in Networked Music.” Organised Sound 17 (1): 28-35.

Maurer, John A. 1999. “A Brief History of Algorithmic Composition.” https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~blackrse/algorithm.html. Accessed April 23 , 2015.

Rebelo, Pedro, Franziska Schroeder and Alain B. Renaud. 2008. “Network Dramaturgy: Being on the Node.” Paper presented at International Computer Music Conference, Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland, August 24-29.

Schafer, Robert Murray. 1994. The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World. Vermont: Destiny Books.

Schroeder, Franziska. 2009. “Dramaturgy as a Model for Geographically Displaced Collaborations: Views from Within and Views from Without.” Contemporary Music Review 28: 4-5.

Smalley, Denis. 1997. “Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound Shapes.” Organised Sound 2 (2): 107-126.

Truax, Barry. 2002. “Genres and Techniques of Soundscape Composition Developed at Simon Fraser University.” Organised Sound 7 (1): 5-14.

Vallis, Owem, Dmitri Diakopoulos, Jordan Hochenbaum and Ajay Kapur. 2012. “Building on the Foundations of Network Music: Exploring Interaction Contexts and Shared Robotic Instruments.” Organised Sound 17 (1): 62-72.

Vitiello, Stephen. [1999] 2002. “World Trade Center Recordings: Winds After Hurricane Floyd.” In Whitney Biennial 2002. Whitney Museum of American Art ISBN 0-8109-6832-0. Exhibition Catalogue & Compact Disc.

Editorial

Editorial nº 43

Por Alejandro Vera

Instituto de Música, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
averaa@uc.cl
Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 9-11. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.1
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Artículo

Melchior Cortez: um precursor do violão de concerto no Rio de Janeiro

Por Humberto Amorim

Escola de Música, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)
humbertoamorim@ufrj.br
Resumen
O artigo objetiva resgatar a trajetória e atuação de um personagem pouco conhecido na história do violão no Brasil: Melchior Cortez (1882-1947), português radicado no Rio de Janeiro desde os nove anos de idade. Para tanto, levanta dados biográficos, traça um possível perfil do músico e esmiúça a sua prolífica atividade como concertista, com a qual alcançou os palcos do Instituto Nacional de Música e dividiu recitais com grandes violonistas de seu tempo, incluindo apresentações em duo com Quincas Laranjeiras. A metodologia consistiu no levantamento e análise de mais de 50 fontes descobertas em jornais e revistas da época (incluindo matérias, entrevistas, fotos e partituras), cruzando os dados alcançados com aqueles oferecidos pela bibliografia disponível. Os resultados apontam para a significativa participação de Cortez como violonista clássico no cenário musical carioca das três primeiras décadas do século XX.

Melchior Cortez - História do violão no Brasil - Pioneiros do violão no Brasil - Violão clássico no Brasil - O violão em jornais e revistas brasileiras

 

Melchior Cortez: A precursor of classical guitar in Rio de Janeiro

Abstract
This paper aims to recover the trajectory of a little-known character in the history of the guitar in Brazil: Melchior Cortez (1882-1947), Portuguese settled in Rio de Janeiro from the age of nine. To this end, this work raises unpublished biographical data, traces a possible profile of the musician and investigates his prolific activity as a concert performer, with which he reached the stage of the “Instituto Nacional de Música” and shared recitals with the great guitarists of his time, including presentations with Quincas Laranjeiras. The methodology consisted of a critical analysis of more than 50 sources discovered in newspapers and magazines of that period. The results point to Cortez's significant participation as a classical guitarist in the Carioca musical scene of the first three decades of the 20th century.

Melchior Cortez - History of the guitar in Brazil - Pioneers of the guitar in Brazil - Classic guitar in Brazil - The guitar in Brazilian newspapers and magazines

Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 13-42. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.2
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La música en los albores del cine sonoro chileno

Por Martín Farías

Reid School of Music / School of Literatures, Languages and Cultures, University of Edinburgh
musicateatral@gmail.com
Resumen
A partir de un análisis comparativo de dos películas chilenas producidas en los comienzos de la era sonora, El hechizo del trigal (Eugenio de Liguoro, 1939) y Escándalo (Jorge Délano, 1940), el presente artículo propone un estudio en torno a los usos de la música en el cine chileno que incorpore tanto el funcionamiento de esta en el ámbito interno de las películas, así como en sus dimensiones históricas y sociales. De esta manera se busca contribuir a un área que ha sido escasamente desarrollada en el estudio de la música en Chile.

música de cine - cine chileno - folclor - composición musical para cine

 

Music at the Dawn of Chilean Sound Cinema

Abstract
Based on a comparative analysis of two Chilean films produced in the beginnings of the sound era, El hechizo del trigal (The Wheatfield Spell, Eugenio de Liguoro, 1939) and Escándalo (Scandal, Jorge Délano, 1940) this article offers a study of the uses of music within Chilean cinema, incorporating not only the internal role of music but also its historical and social dimensions. In so doing, I seek to contribute to a field that has barely been developed in the study of music in Chile.

film music - Chilean cinema - folklore - film scoring

Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 43-66. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.3
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Artículo

¿Qué es un registro sonoro? Sobre las ilusiones y certezas de la etnomusicología

Por Miguel A. García

Departamento de Artes Musicales y Sonoras “Carlos López Buchardo”, Universidad Nacional de las Artes
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Argentina
magarcia@conicet.gov.ar
Resumen
El artículo discurre sobre el carácter representacional del registro sonoro y sobre un uso particular que hacen de él los etnomusicólogos. Mediante la revisión de bibliografía generada en distintas disciplinas y la crítica a una serie de preconceptos, se esboza una definición del registro sonoro que lo vincula con las fuerzas científicas, estéticas, ideológicas y tecnológicas que rigen la generación de otros tipos de documentos y la producción del conocimiento en general. Asimismo, se resalta el papel condicionante que tiene la institución Archivo en la creación, almacenamiento-clasificación, estudio y edición de los registros sonoros.

registro sonoro - archivo sonoro - etnomusicología

 

What is a sound recording? On the illusions and certainties of ethnomusicology

Abstract
The article reflects on the representational character of sound recording and on a particular use ethnomusicologists make of it. By means of the revision of bibliography generated in different disciplines and of the criticism of a series of preconceptions, a definition of sound recording is outlined, which relates it to the scientific, aesthetic, ideological and technological forces that govern the generation of other types of documents and the production of knowledge in general. Also, the conditioning role the Archive institution has in the creation, storage-classification, study and edition of sound recording is highlighted.

sound recording - sound archive - ethnomusicology

Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 67-82. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.4
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Seguidillas y fandangos en las colás de Alosno (Andalucía): género, corporalidad y afecto

Por Herminia Arredondo Pérez

Área de Música, Universidad de Huelva
herminia@uhu.es

Francisco José García Gallardo

Área de Música, Universidad de Huelva
fgarcia@uhu.es
Resumen
Este texto explora la interacción entre género, corporalidad y afecto en una práctica musical de una localidad de Andalucía. Como parte de un estudio de investigación más amplio, nos centramos en un contexto especial y paradigmático, una manifestación festiva representativa de la cultura tradicional que aún hoy sigue viviéndose con gran dinamismo en este lugar. Examinamos cómo la celebración de la Cruz de Mayo en las colás de Alosno (Huelva) pone en acción roles, relaciones de género e ideas acerca de la sexualidad, la feminidad y la masculinidad, junto a experiencias colectivas de comunidad y de lugar contextualizadas afectivamente. La performance musical, la interpretación de la música y baile de seguidillas y fandangos en la voz encarnada de los alosneros y alosneras, contribuye de manera privilegiada a la articulación de significados y experiencias de identidad y subjetividad personal de género, y a la construcción de valores sociales e identidad local, en un clima de fuerte circulación de afecto, placer y emoción.

performance musical - género - corporalidad - afecto - música y danza tradicional - fandangos y seguidillas

 

Seguidillas and Fandangos in the Colás of Alosno (Andalusia): Gender, Corporeality and Affect

Abstract
This article explores the interaction between gender, corporeality and affect in a musical practice of a locality in Andalusia. As part of a broader research study, we focus on a special and paradigmatic context, a festive manifestation representative of traditional culture that still continues to live with great dynamism in this place. We examine how the celebration of the May Cross in the colás de Alosno (Huelva) puts into action roles, gender relations and ideas about sexuality, femininity and masculinity, together with collective experiences of community and place emotionally contextualized. The musical performance, the interpretation of the music and dance of seguidillas and fandangos in the embodied voice of the alosneros and alosneras, contributes in a privileged way to the articulation of meanings and experiences of identity and personal subjectivity of gender, to the construction of social values and local identity, in a climate of strong circulation of affect, pleasure and emotion.

musical performance - gender - corporeality - affect - traditional music and dance - fandangos and seguidillas

Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 83-112. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.5
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Artículo

Entre los nichos y la masividad. El (t)rap de Buenos Aires entre el 2001 y el 2018

Por Sebastián Matías Muñoz Tapia

Instituto de Altos Estudios Sociales, Universidad Nacional de San Martín / CONICET
sebastianmunozt@gmail.com
Resumen
En este trabajo doy cuenta del rap de Buenos Aires posterior al 2001, observando la imbricación de cuestiones sociales y estéticas bajo un enfoque de las ‘mediaciones’ y ‘mundos del arte’. Para esto, analizo sus inicios en tiempos de crisis económico-social y la importancia que en su desarrollo adquiere la democratización de las tecnologías digitales. Observo la generación de diversos nichos (con clivajes de clase, generacionales y estéticos) y un proceso de popularización de la mano del freestyle-improvisación y el subgénero trap. Muestro una diversificación y una acelerada masificación asociadas a la digitalización y eventos autogestivos, en que aparece la producción por estudios de grabación caseros y videoclips subidos a internet. A la vez, destaco la participación de agentes estatales, grandes productoras de eventos, periodistas, empresas de streaming y sellos major. Para concluir, propongo que las diferencias internas en esta música no refieren a homologías directas entre sectores sociales y tipos de rap.

rap - digitalización - nichos - masividad - Buenos Aires - diferenciación social

 

Between niches and popularity. (T)rap in Buenos Aires from 2001 to 2018

Abstract
In this paper I aim to study rap in Buenos Aires after 2001 observing the link between social and aesthetic aspects, from a perspective of ‘mediation’ and ‘worlds of art’. For this purpose, I analyze its origins in times of socio-economic crisis and the importance that the democratization of digital technology has had in its unraveling. I observe the development of diverse niches (related to class, generation or aesthetics cleavages), and a process of popularization related to freestyle-improvisation and trap as a sub-genre. As I will show, there is a diversification and a fast popularization associated with digitalization and self-management events, giving rise to home recording studios and video clips uploaded to the internet. Also, I point out the role of the State, big shows organizers, journalists, streaming agencies and major record labels. Finally, I propose that the internal differences in this music do not refer directly to homologies between social classes and different styles of rap.

rap - digitalization - niches - popularization - Buenos Aires - social differentiation

Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 113-131. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.6
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Artículo

Hackeo ontológico y entornos Metatopia: performance motora, sistemas interactivos y experiencia subjetiva

Por Alicia Peñalba

Departamento de Didáctica de la Expresión Musical, Plástica y Corporal, Universidad de Valladolid
alicia.penalba@uva.es

Rubén López-Cano

Departamento de musicología, Escola Superior de Música de Catalunya
lopezcano@yahoo.com
Resumen
El proyecto Metabody cuestiona la homogeneización inducida por las tecnologías de comunicación y propone los entornos Metatopia:  instalaciones interactivas compuestas de estructuras sobre las que se proyectan luces, arquitecturas virtuales y sonido sintetizado. Los participantes se colocan dentro del dispositivo con sensores que transforman todos los elementos de manera no lineal ni cartesiana con el fin de promover el hackeo ontológico: la emergencia de formas diversas de corporalidad y cognición. Este trabajo estudia la experimentación de los sujetos con el dispositivo para conocer sus procesos de alteridad corporal y cognitiva y todos los componentes de su experiencia. Se ha realizado una observación sistemática de sus performances corporales, funciones gestuales y tipos de interacción con el entorno y, a través de entrevistas en profundidad, se abordan sus experiencias subjetivas. Los resultados se modelan a través de teorías de la cognición corporeizada enactiva; las categorías de movimiento de Laban; el habitus de Bourdieu y los principios del ontohacking que propone el proyecto:desalineamientos, metagaming, amorfogénesis y    flexinámica. Los resultados muestran vivencias de entrecruzamiento de modalidades perceptuales; metaforización y dislocamiento subjetivo producido por la pérdida del sentido de control y la noción de tiempo-espacio; así como la disolución de las fronteras entre sujeto y entorno.

Cognición musical enactiva - Instalación interactiva no lineal - Metabody - Subjetividad musical - Ontohacking - Interacción con instrumentos digitales

 

Ontohacking and Metatopia environments: motor performance, interactive systems and subjective experience

Metabody Project challenges standardization induced by communication technologies. Its main proposal consists in a series of environments named Metatopia: interactive installations made up of structures on which lights, virtual architectures and synthesized sound are projected. Participants situate themselves inside the device equipped with sensors that transform all elements in a non-linear, non-cartesian fashion with the purpose of encouraging ontological hacking: the emergence of diverse forms of corporeality and cognition. The present study focuses in participants’ experimentation with the device, in order to learn about their processes of bodily and cognitive otherness and the whole range of components making up their experience. A systematic observation has been conducted of their bodily performances, gestural functions and types of interaction with the environment, while in-depth interviews reveal their subjective experiences. Results are modeled by resorting to theories of embodied enactive cognition; Laban’s categories of movement; Bourdieu’s habitus; and the principles of ontohacking furthered by the project:disalignements, metagaming, amorphogenesis and flexinamics. The results disclose experiences where perceptual modalities crisscross and there take place metaphorization and subjective dislocation as a result of sensing the loss of control and the space-time notion, as well as the blurring of frontiers between the subject and the environment.

Enactive musical cognition - Non-linear interactive installation - Metabody - Musical subjectivity - Ontohacking - Digital Music Instrument interaction

Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 133-157. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.7
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Acta

Acta de premiación XI Premio Latinoamericano de Musicología “Samuel Claro Valdés”

Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 159. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.8
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Artículo

De incultos y escandalosos: ruido y clasificación social en el México postrevolucionario

Por Natalia Bieletto-Bueno

Centro de Investigación en Artes y Humanidades, Facultad de Artes, Universidad Mayor
nbieletto@umayor.cl
Resumen
Este texto aborda algunas prácticas de escucha en el México postrevolucionario y se ocupa del ruido como un fenómeno socio-cultural, histórico, territorial y epistemológico, es decir, como un problema acustemológico (Feld 1985, 2012, 2013; Erlmann 2010; Ochoa 2014). Mediante un análisis de inscripciones sonoras y corporales del sonido, demuestro que la elaboración del concepto de ruido o “escándalo” estuvo definida por oposición a la observancia de un tipo de escucha musical silenciosa, circunspecta, individualizada y pretendidamente incorpórea. Este modelo de escucha ejemplifica la perspectiva estética del régimen postrevolucionario que encabezó José Vasconcelos, ideólogo de la identidad nacional mexicana, y cuya asociación del goce estético con un supuesto crecimiento espiritual subyace a la ideología del mestizaje. Pese al afán de las élites por ejercer y hacer cumplir este modelo espiritualizado de escucha, formas de vivir la música fuera de este ideal coexistieron en el contexto social cambiante que siguió a la Revolución Mexicana. A largo plazo, el poder de representación de un modelo aural sobre el otro tuvo importantes implicaciones para el desarrollo de ideas sobre lo culto y lo no-culto y, por ende, para el establecimiento de nuevas formas de clasificación social.

estudios sonoros - estudios sensoriales - acustemología - auralidad - prácticas de escucha - ruido

 

De incultos y escandalosos: Noise and Social Classification in Postrevolutionary Mexico

Abstract
This article examines listening practices in post-revolutionary Mexico treating noise as a socio-cultural, historical, territorial and epistemic phenomenon, in other words as an acoustemological problem (Feld 1985, 2012, 2013; Erlmann 2010; Ochoa 2014). Through an analysis of written and corporeal inscriptions of sound, I demonstrate that the construction of the concept of noise, or escándalo, was defined by opposition to compliance with a listening modality that was silent, circumspect, individualized and purportedly incorporeal. This modality of listening exemplifies the aesthetic perspective of the post-revolutionary regime led by José Vasconcelos, ideologue of the Mexican national identity, whose association of aesthetic pleasure with a supposed spiritual growth underlies the ideology of mestizaje. In spite of the authorities’ desire to enforce this spiritualized model of listening, other forms of experiencing music that did not correspond to such ideal coexisted in the changing cultural context that followed the Revolutionary War. In the long term, the power of representation of one aural model over the other had important implications for the development of ideas surrounding the culto (civilized, educated) and the no-culto, thereby establishing new forms of social classification.

sound studies - sensorial studies - acustemology - aurality - listening practices - noise

Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 161-178. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.9
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Documentos

In Memoriam Víctor Alarcón Díaz (1958-2018)

Por David Núñez

Instituto de Música, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
nunez.nz@gmail.com
Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 179. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.10
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Documentos

Robert Stevenson, Samuel Claro Valdés y la realización del primer catálogo de música de la Catedral de Santiago de Chile

Por Laura Fahrenkrog

Instituto de Historia, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
lfahrenk@uc.cl
Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 181-191. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.11
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Reseñas

Herrera Ortega, Silvia. 2017. Tradición, vanguardia y ruptura: el serialismo dodecafónico en Chile. Valparaíso: Ediciones Universitarias de Valparaíso, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso.

Por Malucha Subiabre Vergara

Instituto de Música, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
masubiab@uc.cl
Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 193-198. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.12
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Reseñas

René Silva. 2018. Bitácora del viento. Santiago: Fondos Concursables Facultad de Artes UC. CD.

Por Álvaro Gallegos

Periodista
alvarogallegosm@gmail.com
Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 199-200. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.13
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Reseñas

Vergara, Ximena, Iván Pinto y Álvaro García, eds. 2016. Suban el volumen. 13 ensayos sobre cine y rock. Santiago: La Calabaza del Diablo. 308 p.

Por Laura Jordán González

Instituto de Estética UC
lfjordan@uc.cl
Resonancias vol. 22, n° 43, julio-noviembre 2018, pp. 201-206. 
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7764/res.2018.43.14
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Autores

Autores nº 43 (sección artículos)

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