Editorial Guidelines

Citing Sources in text (author-date)

In general, sources will be cited in text, in abbreviated form, indicating the author or authors’ family name, the year it was published and the corresponding page numbers:

(Kerman 1985, 142)

A semicolon is used when referencing two or more texts at once:

(Kerman 1985, 142; Treitler 1989, 50-56)

When citing two works by the same author published in the same year, they must be arranged alphabetically by title, and differentiated, also in alphabetical order, by lowercase letters in the works cited at the end. In-text citations should be listed by author, year and letter:

(Baker 2004a, 3; Baker 2004b, 15-19)

For texts with two authors, the conjunction and is used to separate them:

(Romanillos and Harris 2000, 243)

(Joseph and Román 2003, 13-18)

For texts with four or more authors, the Latin abbreviation et al (and others) is used, starting with the last name of the first listed author:

(Barrett et al., 2010)


General considerations

  • When works cited are in Spanish, only the first letter of the title should be capitalized, as well as proper nouns.
  • When the work cited is not dated, an approximate date will be provided in brackets, or the abbreviation "n/d", accordingly. 


One author

Estenssoro, Juan Carlos. 1989. Música y sociedad coloniales. Lima 1680-1830. Lima: Colmillo Blanco.

Two or more authors

Beard, David and Kenneth Gloag. 2007. Musicology: The Key Concepts. New York: Routledge Key Guides.

Whiteley, Sheila, Andy Bennett and Stan Hawkins. 2005. Music, Space and Place. Popular Music and Cultural Identity. Aldershot: Ashgate.

When there is an editor, translator or compiler instead of an author

Leyshon, Andrew, David Matless and George Revill, eds. 1998. The Place of Music. New York: The Guilford Press.

Anglés, Higinio, ed. 1977. Cancionero de la Catedral de Segovia. Segovia: Caja de Ahorros y Monte de Piedad.

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Uhlôa, Martha Tupinambá de and Ana María Ochoa, comps. 2005. Música Popular na América Latina. Pontos de Escuta. Porto Alegre: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.

When there is an editor, translator or compiler in addition to the author

García Márquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape.

Book chapter (or section of a book chapter)

Gembero Ustárroz, María. 2006. “Circulación de libros de música entre España y América (1492-1650): notas para su estudio”. In Early Music Printing and Publishing in the Iberian World, Edited by Iain Fenlon and Tess Knighton, 147-179. Kassel: Edition Reichenberger.

Kelly, John D. 2010. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, Edited by John D. Kelly et al., 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Book published electronically

If the text is in more than one format, the version consulted will also be the one cited. Books consulted online should be cited using the URL as well as the date it was accessed (month, day, year). If the document does not have page numbers, the name of the section, chapter or other subdivision will be cited in its stead.

Bohlman, Philip V. 2002. World Music: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition.

Bianchi, Cristóbal, Ed. 2011. Música. Reporte estadístico No13. Valparaíso: Departamento de Estudios, Observatorio Cultural. Accessed March 12, 2012. http://www.cultura.gob.cl/reportemusica/


Journal articles

Article in a print journal

Kerman, Joseph. 1965. “A Profile for American Musicology.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 18 (1): 61-69.

Palacios, José María. 1967. "¿Aún tenemos música, chilenos?". El Musiquero 40 (II): 34-35.

Article in an online journal

Articles from online journals should include the URL or the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in the citation.

Suchismita, Ray and Benjamin M. Bly. 2008. “Two routes for activation in the priming of categorical coordinates.” The Journal of General Psychology 135 (1): 65-83. Accessed February 20, 2010. http://www.heldref.org/jgeneralp.php

Neder, Álvaro. 2010. "O estudo cultural da música popular brasileira: dois problemas e uma contribuição". Per musi 22 (2010): 181-95. Accessed January 20, 2011. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-75992010000200015

Article in a newspaper or popular magazine

Include the page number of the article. If there is none, put only the publication date. If the article is from the Internet, the URL and the access date must be cited. If no author is listed, the citation will begin with the title.

"El sentido íntimo de nuestra historia". 2010. El Mercurio, September 18, E5-E6.

Castelli, Renato. 1999. "Artistas apoyan el Fondart". Las Últimas Noticias, September 17.

Codoceo, Francisca. 2012. "Guía Urbana de Santiago: Museo Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna". El Mercurio on line, June 19. Accessed June 25, 2012. http://www.plataformaurbana.cl/archive/2012/06/19/guia-urbana-de-santiago-museo- benjamin-vicuna-mackenna/

"Obertura de Viña 2010 estará a cargo de cantantes chilenos". 2010. Cooperativa on line, February 15. Accessed March 27, 2012. http://www.cooperativa.cl/obertura- de-vina-2010-estara-a-cargo-de-cantantes-chilenos/prontus_nots/2010-02- 15/181253.html


Other types of works

Book review

Album and book reviews should be cited as print journal articles, unless they are from the press, in which case they should be cited as newspaper articles.

Sabella, Andrés. 1976. "La cueca de Pablo Garrido", review of Biografía de la Cueca, by Pablo Garrido. El Mercurio, September 26, 4D.

Jordán, Laura. 2012. "Mira Niñita. Creación y experiencia de rockeras chilenas", review of book by Fabio Salas. Resonancias 31: 105-10.

Thesis or dissertation

Edward Breslin, Patrick. 1990. "The Development of Class Consciousness in the Chilean Working Class.” PhD diss., University of California.

Alegría Miranda, Carla. 2008. "¡Se acabó la fiesta!: Su reglamentación durante el periodo de la crisis colonial. Santiago (1800-1840)". Senior Thesis in History, Universidad de Chile.

Paper presented at a conference, colloquium, congress, etc.

López Cano, Rubén. 2006. "'Asómate por debajo de la pista': timba cubana, estrategias músico-sociales y construcción de géneros en la música popular". Paper presented at the 7th Congress of the Latin American Branch of the Association for the Study of Popular Music, Havana, Cuba, June 20 – 25.


Websites should include the author, date and title (if applicable) along with the URL and access date:

Canto, Gustavo del. "Huellas africanas en América del Sur. Los últimos negros de Chile". http://diadelaetnia.homestead.com/chilenegro.html. Accessed April 6, 2008.

Dentone, Eliana, Mariela Muñoz and Mariela Cerda. 2005. "Las muertes ignoradas: violencia contra trabajadoras sexuales en Chile. Del silencio a la denuncia". Santiago: ASOSIDA. http://www.asosida.cl/files/pdf_las%20muertes%20ignoradas.pdf

For websites that change regularly, the last modification should be indicated:

Google. 2009. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modification: March 11.


Blog entry or comment

Chandía, Marco. 2012. “El puerto en el imaginario urbano latinoamericano. Propuestas para una "poética de la frontera" porteña y popular”. Lafquén , Blog by Marco Chandía, August 1. http://barracucha.blogspot.com/2012/08/el-puerto-en-el-imaginario- urbano_1.html

Gutiérrez, Benjamín. 2012. Comment to Cristián Salazar, "Contraste de épocas en la historia de los burdeles clásicos de Santiago". Blog by Cristián Salazar, March 19. http://urbatorium.blogspot.com/2012/03/contraste-de-epocas-en-la-historia-los.html

E-mail or text message

Urrutia, Anselmo. 2006. Text message to author. November 15.


For texts found in databases, the database will be cited along with the original source:

Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

Article in electronic database

Gillies, Malcolm. “Bartók, Béla, §1: 1881 - 1903.” In Grove Music Online. Accessed April 6, 2008. Oxford Music Online.

n.b. Articles in the Grove Music Dictionary tend to have a different author for each section.

Recording (complete)

Mahler, Gustav. Symphony No 9. Berlin Philharmonic. Conducted by Sir Simon Rattle. EMI 50999 501228 20. 2008, Compact Disc.

Recording (partial)

Chopin, Frédéric. Ballade No 4, op. 52. 1999. In Chopin: The Four Ballades, Berceuse, op. 57, Barcarolle, op. 60, Scherzo, op. 54, No 4. Evgeny Kissin (piano). RCA/Victor Sello Rojo 09026 - 63259 - 2, Compact Disc.

Liner notes (or sleeve/album notes)

Perreau, Stephan. 1999. Liner notes. Clara Schumann (1819-1896): Piano Music. Yoshiko Iwai (piano). Naxos 8.553501. Compact Disc.


Milhaud, Darius. 1929. La Création du Monde. Paris: M. Eschig.

Archival documents

In the case of archival documents, given the difficulty in abbreviating the source's data, each document will be cited in a footnote according to the following structure:

Archive (city), Collection, Box, Folder, "Title of the document." (if applicable)


Archivo General de Indias (Seville), Box 674, Folder 354, "Contratación."

The same structure will be observed in the list of "Archival sources" which must be included after the bibliography. All sources must be listed alphabetically.

It is also possible to use the RISM abbreviation system to refer to these institutions.